Food dyes effect on the blood cells cytokine secretion in allergic patients
Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Belarus
The aim. To assess food dyes (FD) effect on the immediate and delayed blood cells cytokines secretion in allergic patients.
Materials and methods. The study involved 38 people with allergic asthma combined with allergic rhinitis, the average age - 37 [31; 43] years. 28 people (74%) reported food intolerance, 25 (66%) - FD intolerance; 13 - did not report reactions to the FD in anamnesis - the group of comparison. Cytokine secretion was determined after 3 and 24 hours blood incubation with a mixture of 0.01% and 0.001% FD solutions – Tartrazine (E102), Ñarmuazine (E122), Ponce (E124), Sunset (E110) and Titanium dioxide (E171). The FD solutions concentrations (0.001% and 0.01%) consistent with the norms of acceptable daily intake in humans. The levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6 were determined in the supernatant using standard ELISA test systems.
Results. 3-hour incubation of whole blood with 0.001% solution of five FD mixture in 100% and with 0.01% solution - in 42% cases stimulated secretion of IL-17, compared with 0,9% NaCl. FD solutions more often inhibited (58%) than stimulated (17%) immediate secretion of IL-1β and IL-6, compared to 0,9% NaCl; in equal amounts inhibited and stimulated secretion of IFN-γ (33%) in both concentrations. A mixture of FD stimulated secretion of IFN-γ stronger, than Con A at 0.001% concentration - in 4 (50%) cases, in 0.01% concentration - in 3 (37.5%) cases. Patients with a FD allergy observed for immediate inhibition of IL-1β, unlike similar samples in the control group. Stimulation of IL-17 secretion by 0.001% FD solution in comparison with 0,9% NaCl was observed in both groups.
After 24-hour blood incubation with 0.001% tartrazine (T) solution secretion of IL-17 increased in 80%; with 0.01% solution - in 50%; both concentrations inhibited the secretion of IL-6 (50%). 0.001% and 0.01% T solutions more often inhibited than stimulated secretion of IL-1β (27% vs. 8%) and secretion of IFN-γ (in 46-54% vs. 8%, respectively) compared with 0,9% NaCl. Patients with FD allergy were observed for significant increasing secretion of IL-17 and decreasing secretion of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6 after 24 hour incubation with 0.001% T solution, in comparison with 0,9% NaCl, the group without FD anamnesis - 0.01 % T solution more often inhibited IFN-γ, than physiological solution. Con A after 3 and 24 hours incubation caused stronger secretion of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-6, than the FD solutions.
Conclusions. FD in hygienically permissible doses have immediate and delayed effects on the blood cells. They cause the secretion of IL-17 involved in allergic inflammation, inhibit the release of cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ and immunomodulate the immediate secretion of IL-1β.