Ectopic photoreceptors in bronchial asthma: possible pathogenetic role
Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University
In recent years, there have been emerged researches on the pathogenetic role in bronchial asthma of so-called ectopic neurosensory receptors (taste receptors to bitter and sweet tastes, olfactory receptors that are expressed outside their canonical localization.
The participation of ectopic photoreceptors - opsins (opsin 3 and opsin 4) in the regulation of the airway smooth muscles tone (photorelaxation of airway smooth muscles) and photorelaxation in the pulmonary circulation is considered.
The expression of the opsin 3 gene (OPN3) at both the mRNA and protein levels in bronchial epithelium and immune cells (alveolar macrophages, T and B cells, dendritic cells) is reported, suggesting possible involvement of this gene in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The levels of transcripts of the OPN3 gene were 2.5 times higher in samples of pulmonary tissue from patients with bronchial asthma compared to samples of “non-asthmatics” pulmonary tissue.
Polymorphisms of the OPN3 gene (rs614251, HCV605574, HCV1292455) and their association with phenotypes of bronchial asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity have been identified.
It is assumed that the scientific basis being created, concerning the modulation by ectopic opsins of pathogenetic mechanisms of bronchial asthma, will allow to develop a new therapeutic target approach.