Neutrophil extracellular traps: mechanisms of formation, functions
Korotina O.L., Generalov I.I.
This article highlights the current data concerning a new mechanism of antimicrobial action of neutrophilic granulocytes – neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The conditions and basic stages of NETs formation are described emphasizing the difference between apoptosis, necrosis and NETs maturation. Main inducers and constituents of NETs are characterized. The mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of NETs are consolidated to compare their efficacy in pathogen elimination with conventional phagocytosis. Broad scope of infectious and inflammatory diseases where NETs were studied is given and putative role of neutrophil traps in their pathogenesis is discussed. A number of laboratory methods currently available for NETs determination is revised.