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International journal of Immunopathology, allergology, infectology.

Vitamin D and antimicrobial peptides in congenital pneumonia of premature newborns

Zhuravleva L.N., Novikova V.I.

Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Belarus

Introduction. One of the leading causes of morbidity in newborns is the pathology of the respiratory tract. Among this group of patients, and especially premature newborns, congenital pneumonia takes the leading role among diseases of the respiratory system. The aim of the work was to identify the relationship between the level of vitamin D and endogenous antimicrobial peptides in congenital pneumonia of premature infants. Material and methods. We observed 2 groups of premature newborns: 32 newborns with congenital pneumonia, and the comparison group consisted of 20 "almost healthy" newborns without respiratory tract pathology. Results. In patients with pneumonia, the level of vitamin D was significantly lower (9,57 [6,57-17,25]) when compared with conventionally healthy newborns (21,1 [9,2-32,02]), p<0.01. However, in the group with congenital pneumonia, the levels of cathelicidin LL-37 and HBD-2 were significantly higher (2,87 [2,3-4,43] and 240,4 [132,4-406,7]) compared with another group (1,6 [0,8-2,5] and 156,7 [82,4-208,7]), p<0,01. Moreover, patients with severe congenital pneumonia had significantly lower concentration of vitamin D (7,6 [5,7-13,2]) and higher cathelicidin LL-37 (3,75 [2,8-4,26]) compared with patients with moderate pneumonia (13,7 [9,7-16,5] and 2,5 [2,1-3,7], respectively). But we did not observe such a relationship with HBD-2 (in severe congenital pneumonia, there was a decrease in HBD-2 (220,4 [142,6-401,6] and 278,2 [154,6-378,6], respectively). Conclusion. Lower vitamin D concentrations in serum may be have significant associatiation with congenital pneumonia. Also, vitamin D levels can predict the need for mechanical ventilation and the duration of hospitalization for congenital pneumonia in premature infants.

Keywords

Newborns, pneumonia, antimicrobial peptides, premature babies, cathelicidin LL-37, β-defensin-2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

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Reference

Zhuravleva L.N., Novikova V.I. Immunopathology, allergology, infectology 2021; 1:13-19

DOI

10.14427/jipai.2021.1.13