Comorbidity of atopic bronchial asthma and food allergy in adults
Zhorina Y.V., Ignatova G.L., Abramovskikh O.S., Zherebcova I.A.
South-Urals State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk
Municipal clinical hospital ¹6, Chelyabinsk
Adult patients with atopic bronchial asthma are susceptible to food allergy, in more than one third of cases, while asthma is a risk factor for severe life-threatening factors. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and relationship of food allergies with atopic bronchial asthma in adults living in Chelyabinsk. Materials and methods. An analysis of 313 outpatient case histories of patients with atopic bronchial asthma over the age of 18 was performed. Results. The presence of food allergy was a factor in the earlier onset of atopic bronchial asthma, which is consistent with the concept of comorbidity of these diseases. Patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and pollen sensitization have an increased risk of developing food allergies (OR – 2.075 [1.27- 3.39]), p=0,004. The overall incidence of oral allergic syndrome among all patients with atopic asthma and plant sensitization was 33% [28; 37]. Plant products (fruits, honey, nuts) were the cause of food allergic reactions in 87% [80; 92] of adult cases. The main clinical manifestations were: oral allergic syndrome, urticaria, angioedema, shortness of breath. Sensitization to pollen of trees, grasses and weeds approximately equally increases the risk of developing an oral allergic syndrome, upon sensitization to tree pollen (OR – 3.08 [2.32-4.25]), to grass pollen (OR – 3.5 [2.23-5.61]), to weed pollen (OR – 2.86 [2.02-4.03]). The combination of several types of pollen sensitization increases by 4 times the risk of developing oral allergic syndrome to a wide range of foods. Conclusion. Data on the causes and clinical manifestations of food allergies in combination with bronchial asthma have been obtained. The notion of a significant risk of developing dangerous clinical manifestations of food allergy in patients with atopic bronchial asthma will make it possible to reasonably prescribe emergency drugs for independent use.