Biofilm’s role in the pathogenesis of infectious process at the present stage
Okulich V.K., Plotnikov P.V., Kabanova A.A.
The majority of microorganisms in the natural and artificially created environments exists in the form of the structured communities attached to a surface – biofilms. Characteristic property of all biofilms – their amazing stability to the physical and biochemical impacts which are including resistance to antibiotic. The reasons of development of the increased resistance of the microorganisms, capable to form a biofilm: violation of penetration of antibiotics through matrix of biofilms, an expression of genes of the stress responce, a variation of growth phases, persisters, shortage of nutrients. With use of the confocal microscopy it is established that biofilms have difficult three"dimensional structure. The most important polysaccharides which play the leading role in formation biofilms matrix of a large number of species of bacteria: cellulose, PNAG/PIA, PEL, PSL and VPS. Multimeasured cellular outgrowths – flagella, fimbriya, pili – participate in an attachment of bacteria to a surface and their interaction as a part of biofilms. Intercellular interactions of bacteria as a part of a biofilm occur to participation of Quorum Sensing. To date, the formation of biofilms by the hospital strains is a serious problem to public health practice.